Archive for the 'Artefacts' Category

March 17th

REMEMBER – there are no workshops and no lecture tomorrow (March 17th). Instead I am running tutorials in my office – ET104 – from 9am-12.30pm.

There is a sign-up sheet on the noticeboard outside my office. Hand-in date is Friday 20th March in Ellen Terry reception. I will offer turorials on a first come first serve basis. However you can email me with queries on my coventry email or my yahoo email (which is on all the documentation downloadable from the document store). Mez

Missed your feedback?

I’ve had several emails from students regarding feedback.

The group feedback session was in week 7.  This was for your Photo sets on Flickr, your blogs and your websites. If you missed that session I don’t have time to reschedule individual feedback sessions. However you can hand in the FINAL artefact which is a convergent version of ALL the artefacts (Photo set, website and Flash slideshow) in the final week of term.

The hand in date for the module is March 17th. If you would like some quick feedback on your blog for your website please create a geocities account – upload your site and link to it from your blog then email me (or comment on this blog) to say it’s all there – (with the link and your name)  – and ready for me to view.


Workshop & Lecture Tuesday 10th Feb

Workshops and lecture will be as normal tomorrow. Activity week is the following week (16th-21st Feb) and there will not be any workshops and lectures for that week.

After Activity week we will be beginning workshop sessions on Flash and you will be given your final artefact to think about, research and create.

A Brief History of the Internet

A Little History of the World Wide Web From the world wide web consortium

See also How It All
Started presentation
matierals from the W3C
10th Anniversary Celebration
and other

<a href=”;

A talk Given by Tim Berners Lee

from 1945 to 1995


Vannevar Bush writes
article in Atlantic
about a photo-electrical-mechanical device called a Memex, for
memory extension, which could make and follow links between documents on


Doug Engelbart prototypes an “oNLine System” (NLS) which does hypertext
browsing editing, email, and so on. He invents the mouse for this purpose.
See the Bootstrap Institute

Ted Nelson coins the word Hypertext in A File Structure for the
Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate
. 20th National
Conference, New York, Association for Computing
, 1965. See also:
Machines, a

Andy van Dam and others build the Hypertext Editing System and FRESS in


While consulting for CERN June-December of 1980, Tim Berners-Lee writes a
notebook program, “Enquire-Within-Upon-Everything”, which allows links to be
made between arbitrary nodes. Each node had a title, a type, and a list of
bidirectional typed links. “ENQUIRE” ran on Norsk Data machines under
SINTRAN-III. See: Enquire user manual
as scanned images
or as HTML


“Information Management: A
written by Tim BLand circulated for comments at CERN
(TBL). Paper “HyperText and CERN” produced as background (
or WriteNow


Same proposal
Mike Sendall, Tim’s boss, Oks the purchase of a NeXT cube, and allows
Tim to go ahead and write a global hypertext system.
Tim starts work on a hypertext GUI browser+editor using the NeXTStep
development environment. He makes up “WorldWideWeb” as a name for the
program. (See the first
screenshot) “World Wide Web” as a name for the project
(over Information Mesh, Mine of Information, and Information Mine).
Project original proposal
reformulated with encouragement from CN and ECP divisional management.
Robert Cailliau (ECP) joins and is
co-author of new version.
Initial WorldWideWeb
development continues on the NeXT (
) . This was a “what you see is
what you get” (wysiwyg) browser/editor with direct inline creation of
links. The first web server was, later called, and the first web page Unfortunately CERN
no longer supports the historical site. Note from this era too, the
recently modified web page
we know of, last changed Tue, 13 Nov
1990 15:17:00 GMT (though the URI changed.)
Technical Student Nicola Pellow (CN)
joins and starts work on the line-mode browser. Bernd
(CN) helps get interface
to CERNVM “FIND” index running. TBL gives a
on hypertext in
Line mode browser and

browser/editor demonstrable. Acces is possible to hypertext files,
CERNVM “FIND”, and Internet news articles.


workplan for the purposes of ECP
26 February 1991
Presentation of the project to the
ECP/PT group.
Line mode browser (www) released to limited audience on “priam” vax,
rs6000, sun4.
Workplan produced
for CN/AS group
17 May
Presentation to “C5” Committee.
General release of WWW on central CERN machines.
12 June
CERN Computer Seminar on
Files available on the net by FTP, posted on
alt.hypertext (
, 19th Aug), (20th), comp.text.sgml and comp.mail.multi-media (22nd).
Jean-Francois Groff joins the
VMS/HELP and WAIS gateways installed. Mailing lists www-interest (now
www-announce) and (see
started. One year status report. Anonymous telnet service started.
Presented poster and demonstration at
in San
Antonio, Texas (US). W3 browser installed on VM/CMS. CERN
http://crnvmc/FIND?:cnl+204″>computer newsletter announces W3
to the HEP world.Dec 12: Paul Kunz installs first Web server outside of Europe, at


15 January
Line mode browser release 1.1 available by anonymous FTP (see
). Presentation to AIHEP’92 at La Londe
12 February
Line mode v 1.2 annouced on alt.hypertext, comp.infosystems,
comp.mail.multi-media, cern.sting, comp.archives.admin, and mailing
29th April: Release of Finnish “Erwise” GUI client for X
mentioned in

by TimBL.
Pei Wei’s “Viola” GUI browser for X test version dated May 15.

by TimBL)At CERN, Presentation and
, Innsbruck (AT).
Technical Student Carl Barker (ECP) joins
the project.
Presentation and demo at HEPVM (Lyon). People at FNAL (Fermi National
Accelerator Laboratory (US)), NIKHEF (Nationaal Instituut voor Kern- en
Hoge Energie Fysika, (NL)), DESY (Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron,
Hamburg, (DE)) join with WWW servers.
Distribution of WWW through CernLib, including Viola. WWW library
code ported to DECnet. Report to the Advisory Board on Computing.
Introduction of CVS for code management
at CERN.
Plenary session demonstration to the HEP community at CHEP’92 in
Annecy (FR).
Jump back in time to a snapshot of the
Project Page as of 3 Nov 1992
and the WWW project web of the time,
including the list of all 26 resoanably reliable
NCSA’s having just been added, but no sign of Mosaic.


By now, Midas (Tony Johnson, SLAC), Erwise (HUT), and Viola (Pei Wei,
O’Reilly Associates) browsers are available for X; CERN Mac browser
(ECP) released as alpha. Around 50 known HTTP servers.
NCSA release first alpha version of Marc Andreessen’s “Mosaic for X”.
Computing seminar at CERN.
The University of Minnesota
href=””>announcedthat they would begin to charge licensing fees for Gopher’s use, which
caused many volunteers and employees to stop using it and switch to
WWW (Port 80 HTTP) traffic measures 0.1% of NSF backbone traffic. WWW
presented at Online
Publishing 93
, Pittsburgh.The Acceptable Use Policy prohibiting commercial use of the Internet

so that it becomes becomes allowed.
April 30: Date on the declaration by CERN’s directors that WWW
technology would be freely usable by anyone, with no fees being payable
to CERN. A milestone document.
Ari Luotonen (ECP) joins the project at CERN. He implements access
authorisation, proceeds to re-write the CERN httpd server.
July 28-30
O’Reilly hosts first
href=”History/1994/WWW/WorkingNotes/Overview.html#z45″>WWW Wizards
in Cambridge Mass (US).
WWW (Port 80 http) traffic measures 1% of NSF backbone traffic. NCSA
releases working versions of Mosaic browser for all common platforms:
X, PC/Windows and Macintosh.September 6-10: On a bus at a
Information at Newcastle University, MIT’s Prof. David
Gifford suggests Tim BL contact Michael Dertouzos of MIT/LCS as a
possible consortium host site.
Over 200 known HTTP servers. The European Commission, the Fraunhofer
Gesellschaft and CERN start the first Web-based project of the European
Union (DG XIII): WISE, using the Web for dissemination of technological
information to Europe’s less favoured regions.
WWW receives IMA award. John Markov writes a page and a half on WWW
and Mosaic in “The New York Times” (US) business section. “The
Guardian” (UK) publishes a page on WWW, “The Economist” (UK) analyses
the Internet and WWW.Robert Cailliau gets go-ahead from CERN management to organise the
First International WWW Conference at CERN.


O’Reilly, Spry, etc announce “Internet in a box” product to bring the
Web into homes.
Marc Andreessen and colleagues leave NCSA to form “Mosaic
Communications Corp” (later Netscape).
May 25-27
First International WWW
, CERN, Geneva. Heavily oversubscribed (800 apply, 400
allowed in): the “Woodstock of the Web”. VRML is conceived here. TBL’s
closing keynote hints at upcoming organization. (Some of Tim’s
href=”/Talks/WWW94Tim/”>slides on Semantic Web
M. Bangemann
href=””>report on European
Commission Information Superhighway plan. Over 1500 registered servers.Load on the first Web server ( 1000 times what it has
been 3 years earlier.
alt=”Over June ’91 to June 94, stead” />

MIT/CERN agreement to start W3 Organisation is announced by Bangemann
in Boston.
. Reports in Wall Street Journal, Boston Globe etc.
Founding of the
href=”″>IW3C2: the
International WWW Conference Committee, in Boston, by NCSA and
The European Commission and CERN propose the WebCore project for
development of the Web core technology in Europe.
1 October
World Wide Web Consortium founded.
Second International WWW
“Mosaic and the Web”, Chicago. Also heavily oversubscribed: 2000 apply,
1300 allowed in.
14 December
First W3

Meeting at M.I.T. in Cambridge (USA).
15 December
First meeting with European Industry and the European Consortium
branch, at the European
, Brussels.
16 December
CERN Council approves unanimously the construction of the
href=””>LHC (Large
Hadron Collider) accelerator, CERN’s next machine and competitor to the
US’ already defunct SSC (Superconducting Supercollider). Stringent
budget conditions are however imposed. CERN thus decides not to
continue WWW development, and in concertation with the European
Commission and INRIA (the Institut
National pour la Recherche en Informatique et Automatique, FR)
transfers the WebCore project to INRIA.


the Web is the main reason for the theme of the G7 meeting hosted by
the European Commission in the European Parliament buildings in
Brussels (BE).
CERN holds a two-day
href=””>seminar for
the European Media (press, radio, TV), attended by 250 reporters, to
show WWW. It is demonstrated on 60 machines, with 30 pupils from the
local International High School helping the reporters “surf the
Third International WWW
“Tools and Applications”, hosted by the
href=””>Fraunhofer Gesellschaft, in
Darmstadt (DE)
Founding of the Web Society in
Graz (AT), by the Technical University of Graz (home of Hyper-G), CERN,
the University of Minnesota (home of Gopher) and INRIA.

See also:

Dan Connolly, 2000Webmasterfeedback to www-talk (
href=””>archive) and/or

$Revision: 1.49 $ of $Date: 2006/06/13 22:35:21 $

created circa 1995 by Robert Cailliau

The Read Write web

Dan Gilmour article

Viral Video The Machine is Using US:

What to Do?

I want to look in some detail at the task you have been set for your first piece of work. You have one more week to complete the still images and to place them online on flickr and link to your flickr account from your blog.

I am going to explore with you today a range of approaches that you could take with this first piece of work. To do this I am going to show you how other people are working currently in visualising data and also point you toward some of the tools, techniques or ways of thinking that may inform your own images that you make.

“We’re really close to the point where non-specialists will be able to find data online, ask questions of it, produce answers that bear on public policy issues, and share those answers online for review and discussion. A few more turns of the crank, and we’ll be there. And not a moment too soon.” Link

Telling a story, creating a narrative that matters to others as well as yourself

When choosing some data to visualise ask yourself a question: Does this matter to me? Is it an important part of my thoughts or experience? What does it communicate?

It might be argued that a good data visualisation tells a story it communicates in a way that we can understand and relate to. Remember the first example of data visualisation that we showed you. It was at Although it is raw data from the UN it focuses on peoples lives and experiences in different parts of the world it allows us to compare our experiences where we are with other peoples experiences and life chances where they are. How long do people live? What do they survive on? And it tells that story in time.

Lets have a look at a Ted lecture with a Jonathan Harrison talking about one of his data visualisation projects.

Try out his online app at

Another similar app can be found at This was commisioned by the Whitney Museum and Tate Online

Another interesting app is called newsmap which takes live news feeds from the web and displays them in terms of popularity and frequency.

All of these are fairly sophisticated and require some knowledge of programming and how to work with live feeds and to force them to display according to particular parameters. We are not expecting you to do this. We want you to choose some fairly simple statistics that have relevance for you and to display these statically as a series of stills in a flickr slideshow.

So what things might you choose to think about?

Personal Stats: collect your own data

  • Things you consume in a week, month, year?
  • Drink, Cigarettes, pizzas, etc
  • Petrol, electricity
  • money on food, entertainment, or just living
  • debt levels, week, month, year at end of course

How long you spend:

  • Watching TV
  • Listening to Radio
  • Listening to ipod or other
  • Working
  • Coursework

How you feel:

  • Relationships
  • Family
  • At particular times of the day, week, year
  • Hopes
  • Fears

All of these different types of personal stats could be compared to your friends or others on your course or in the module.

Non Personal Stats

Country, Continent, International

  • Literacy rates
  • Education Attainment
  • Divorces
  • Inequalities in wealth
  • Global Inequalities in wealth
  • Money spent on defence
  • Number of people in prison
  • Birth rates
  • death rates (life expectancy) in countries or different parts of the same country or even city

These are just some ideas that come immediately to mind, you, with a little thought, will be able to come up with many others. It doesn’t take much searching to find well regarded and detailed statistics.

Think about your day to day existence, think about things going on in the world. Soon after this lecture Barack Obama is giving his inauguration speech. You could use wordle to examine the frequency of the words used or a number of other tools to examine the breakdown of the words and ideas. Try to be imaginative and inventive.

Another text based tool form IBM is the Word Tree Guide

Wealth Gap in world cities.

Visual Guide to the Financial Crisis

How Might you work with Still Images?

A guy called Chris Jordan is currently working with still images and trying to use stills to visualise aspects of consumption the work he is creating is very US centric, but could easily be applied to our own or others consumption habits.

He speaks about his work, again at a recent TED conference.

Lets have  a closer look at some of his images.

prison uniforms

Although very simple ideas they work in a very powerful way in being able to make us take in the huge numbers that are being dealt with. When zooming into the image and seeing what it is composed of we understand the enormity of the things being expressed. The images in this sense are shocking because they only reveal themselves on closer inspection.

Even with your basic photoshop skills it would be possible for you to produce similar representations.

Possible Visualisation tools that you can use

Apart from Photoshop there are a number of ways that you can visualise. You can use screenshots of your online wanderings, you can take digital pictures, you can scan in drawings and images that you make or cut up from other sources.

You can begin to experiment with a host of fairly easy to use online tools for visualisation:

For your first Artefact we want you to use still images on Flickr and present them as a slideshow that communicates the information visually. You can tell a progressive story as the images change or you could show a variety of data related in some way. Remember the beginning of this piece asked the question about successful data visualisation is it because it tells a story. Always keep in mind the story that you are trying to communicate and keep it simple.

Radiohead Visual Data and realtime capture by scanning.

Have Fun